1. Sabatia angularis
  2. Saccharum officinarum
  3. Safflower
  4. Sagina procumbens
  5. Sagittaria sagittifolia
  6. Sagittaria subulata
  7. Sagittaria trifolia
  8. Salicornia europaea
  9. Salicornia virginica
  10. Salix alba
  11. Salix arbuscula

12.Salix aurita

13.Salix babylonica

14.Salix caprea

  1. Salix cinerea

16.Salix fragilis

  1. Salix glauca

18.Salix hastata

19.Salix herbacea

  1. Salix lanata

21.Salix lapponum

  1. Salix myrtilloides
  2. Salix pentandra
  3. Salix phylicifolia
  4. Salix purpurea
  5. Salix reticulata
  6. Salix triandra
  7. Salix viminalis
  8. Salsola soda
  9. Salvadora persica

31.Salvia aegyptiaca

  1. Salvia aethiopis
  2. Salvia africana-caerulea
  3. Salvia africana-lutea
  4. Salvia canariensis
  5. Salvia dominica
  6. Salvia glutinosa
  7. Salvia hispanica
  8. Salvia indica
  9. Salvia lyrata

41.Salvia mexicana

  1. Salvia officinalis
  2. Salvia pratensis
  3. Salvia sclarea
  4. Salvia urticifolia
  5. Salvia verbenaca
  6. Salvia verticillata
  7. Salvia viridis
  8. Sambucus canadensis
  9. Sambucus ebulus
  10. Sambucus nigra
  11. Sambucus racemosa
  12. Samolus valerandi
  13. Sanguinaria canadensis
  14. Sanguisorba canadensis
  15. Sanguisorba officinalis
  16. Sanicula canadensis
  17. Sanicula europaea
  18. Sanicula marilandica
  19. Santalum album

61.Santolina chamaecyparissus

  1. Santolina rosmarinifolia
  2. Sapindus saponaria
  3. Sapium glandulosum
  4. Saponaria ocymoides
  5. Saponaria officinalis
  6. Sarracenia flava
  7. Sarracenia purpurea
  8. Satureja hortensis
  9. Satureja montana
  10. Saururus cernuus
  11. Saw-wort
  12. Saxifraga aizoides
  13. Saxifraga aspera
  14. Saxifraga bryoides
  15. Saxifraga cernua
  16. Saxifraga cespitosa
  17. Saxifraga cotyledon
  18. Saxifraga granulata
  19. Saxifraga hirculus

81.Saxifraga oppositifolia

  1. Saxifraga rivularis
  2. Saxifraga rotundifolia
  3. Saxifraga stellaris
  4. Saxifraga tridactylites
  5. Scabiosa atropurpurea
  6. Scabiosa ochroleuca
  7. Scabiosa stellata
  8. Scandix pecten-veneris
  9. Scheuchzeria palustris

91.Schinus molle

  1. Schoenoplectus lacustris
  2. Schoenoplectus mucronatus
  3. Schoenus nigricans
  4. Schwalbea americana
  5. Scilla bifolia
  6. Scilla peruviana
  7. Scleranthus annuus
  8. Scleranthus perennis
  9. Scleria terrestris
  10. Scolymus hispanicus
  11. Scolymus maculatus
  12. Scoparia dulcis
  13. Scorpiurus muricatus
  14. Scorzonera hispanica
  15. Scorzonera humilis
  16. Scorzoneroides autumnalis
  17. Scots pine
  18. Scrophularia auriculata
  19. Scrophularia marilandica
  20. Scrophularia nodosa
  21. Scutellaria alpina
  22. Scutellaria galericulata
  23. Scutellaria lateriflora
  24. Secale cereale
  25. Securigera varia
  26. Sedum acre
  27. Sedum album
  28. Sedum dasyphyllum
  29. Sedum sexangulare
  30. Selaginella apoda
  31. Selaginella rupestris
  32. Selenicereus grandiflorus
  33. Sempervivum arachnoideum
  34. Sempervivum tectorum
  35. Senecio congestus
  36. Senecio elegans
  37. Senecio glaucus
  38. Senecio nemorensis
  39. Senecio squalidus
  40. Senecio sylvaticus
  41. Senecio viscosus
  42. Senecio vulgaris
  43. Senegalia tenuifolia
  44. Senna alata
  45. Senna auriculata
  46. Senna bicapsularis
  47. Senna marilandica
  48. Senna obtusifolia
  49. Senna occidentalis
  50. Senna sophera
  51. Senna tora
  52. Serapias lingua
  53. Serratula tinctoria
  54. Sesame
  55. Sesamum indicum
  56. Shepherdia canadensis
  57. Sherardia arvensis
  58. Sibbaldia procumbens
  59. Sida cordifolia
  60. Sida rhombifolia
  61. Sideritis syriaca
  62. Sideroxylon inerme
  63. Sigesbeckia orientalis
  64. Silaum silaus
  65. Silene antirrhina
  66. Silene armeria
  67. Silene conoidea
  68. Silene coronaria
  69. Silene gallica
  70. Silene noctiflora
  71. Silene nutans
  72. Silene rupestris
  73. Silene virginica
  74. Silphium asteriscus
  75. Silphium laciniatum
  76. Sinapis alba
  77. Sinapis arvensis
  78. Sisymbrium altissimum
  79. Sisymbrium irio
  80. Sisymbrium officinale
  81. Sisyrinchium bermudiana
  82. Sium latifolium
  83. Sium sisarum
  84. Smilax aspera
  85. Smilax bona-nox
  86. Smilax china
  87. Smilax herbacea
  88. Smilax laurifolia
  89. Smilax pseudochina
  90. Smilax rotundifolia
  91. Smilax tamnoides
  92. Smilax zeylanica
  93. Smyrnium olusatrum
  94. Solanum bahamense
  95. Solanum campechiense
  96. Solanum carolinense
  97. Solanum diphyllum
  98. Solanum dulcamara
  99. Solanum incanum
  100. Solanum lycopersicum
  101. Solanum mammosum
  102. Solanum melongena
  103. Solanum nigrum
  104. Solanum pseudocapsicum
  105. Solanum trilobatum
  106. Solanum tuberosum
  107. Solanum virginianum
  108. Soldanella alpina
  109. Solidago altissima
  110. Solidago caesia
  111. Solidago canadensis
  112. Solidago flexicaulis
  113. Solidago rigida
  114. Solidago sempervirens
  115. Solidago virgaurea
  116. Sonchus arvensis
  117. Sonchus asper
  118. Sonchus oleraceus
  119. Sonchus palustris
  120. Sonchus tenerrimus
  121. Sophora tomentosa
  122. Sorbaria sorbifolia
  123. Sorbus aucuparia
  124. Sorbus domestica
  125. Sorrel
  126. Sparganium erectum
  127. Sparganium natans
  128. Spartium junceum
  129. Spearmint
  130. Spelt
  131. Spergula arvensis
  132. Sphaeranthus indicus
  133. Spinach
  134. Spinacia oleracea
  135. Spiraea tomentosa
  136. Spiranthes cernua
  137. Spiranthes spiralis
  138. Spondias mombin
  139. Stachys palustris
  140. Stachys sylvatica
  141. Staphylea trifolia
  142. Stellaria graminea
  143. Stellaria holostea
  144. Stellaria media
  145. Stellaria nemorum
  146. Sternbergia lutea
  147. Stewartia malacodendron
  148. Stipa avenacea
  149. Stipa pennata
  150. Stone pine
  151. Stratiotes aloides
  152. Strychnos nux-vomica
  153. Subularia aquatica
  154. Summer savory
  155. Suriana maritima
  156. Sutherlandia frutescens
  157. Swamp dewberry
  158. Sweet pea
  159. Swertia perennis
  160. Symphoricarpos albus
  161. Symphoricarpos orbiculatus
  162. Symphyotrichum cordifolium
  163. Symphyotrichum ericoides
  164. Symphyotrichum laeve
  165. Symphyotrichum novae-angliae
  166. Symphyotrichum novi-belgii
  167. Symphyotrichum puniceum
  168. Symphytum officinale
  169. Symphytum tuberosum
  170. Symplocarpus foetidus
  171. Syringa vulgaris
  172. Syzygium aromaticum
  173. Syzygium jambos
  174. Syzygium malaccense



Salix matsudana

  • Willow bark  (Salix spp.)
  • In TCM: liǔ (S. babylonica, 柳) or shuǐ yáng (S. purpurea, 水杨)<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-read-12">
  • Used for: pain relief (and is effective, obviously).
  • Harmful effects: may include stomach upset, digestive system upset, itching, an increased risk of children developing Reyes syndrome, ulcers, stomach bleeding, and liver toxicity.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-213"><wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-wb-214"><wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-215"> (No better than aspirin, then.) Side effects from overdosing may include skin rash, stomach inflammation/irritation, nausea, vomiting, kidney inflammation, and tinnitus (ringing in the ears).<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-wb-214"> Willow bark can be anywhere from .% to .% salicin (the active ingredient).<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-wb-214">


Stevia rebaudiana

  • Stevia  (Stevia rebaudiana)
  • Used as a sweetener.
  • Usually no side effects, but rare ones may include bloating, nausea, dizziness, muscle pain, and numbness.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-203">


Spinacia oleracea

  • Spinach  (Spinacia oleracea)
  • In TCM:  (菠)<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-read-12">
  • May contribute to kidney stone formation by increasing the amount of oxalate in the urine.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-201">



Salvia officinalis

  • Sage  (usually Salvia officinalis, also Salvia lavandulaefolia, occasionally others )
  • Also called: garden sage, common sage
  • Used in: vaginal steaming, aromatherapy
  • Claimed to: move blood and chi through physical and emotional obstructions, reduce loss of appetite, reduce flatulence, reduce stomach pain, reduce diarrhea, reduce stomach bloating, reduce heartburn, reduce overproduction of perspiration, reduce overproduction of saliva, reduce depression, reduce memory loss, reduce Alzheimer's disease, reduce painful menstrual periods, reduce excessive milk flow during nursing, and reduce hot flashes during menopause, (when applied topically) help cold sores, gum disease (gingivitis), sore mouth/throat/tongue, swollen nasal passages, and (when inhaled) reduce asthma.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • Beneficial effects:
  • May potentially improve learning, memory, and information processing for mild to moderate Alzheimer's disease.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • May improve memory and attention.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • Appears to remove cold sores slightly slower than medical products.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • May reduce "bad" cholesterol.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • May reduce symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • In one study, sage extract significantly reduced ultraviolet-induced erythema.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-193">
  • Unproven effects:
  • Not known if sage reduces lung cancer.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • Not known if sage helps sore throats.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • Not known for other conditions.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • Harmful effects:
  • Salvia officinalis contains thujone. Thujone can be poisonous in sufficient doses, and can cause seizures, damage to the liver, and damage to the nervous systems. The amount of thujone varies with the species of plant, the time of harvest, growing conditions, and other factors.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • If pregnant or breastfeeding, the risk of thujone poisoning is especially high.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • For persons with higher risks of seizures, thujone is especially dangerous.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • Sage may reduce blood sugar, affecting patients with diabetes and patients undergoing surgery.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) may affect estrogen-receptive growths, such as breast cancer, uterine cancer, ovarian cancer, endometriosis, or uterine fibroids.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • Spanish sage (Salvia lavandulaefolia) might increase blood pressure in those with high blood pressure, while common sage (Salvia officinalis) might lower blood pressure in people with low blood pressure.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">
  • Sage can cause drowsiness.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-WMDSage-192">



Sassafras albidum

  • Sassafras  (Sassafras spp.)
  • Used for: "blood purifying", promoting sweating and urination, pain relief and venereal disease<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7"> joint pain and preventing colds and flus.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-194"> There is no evidence to support its use for these conditions.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-sassa-195">
  • Harmful effects: Sassafras is poisonous, and even ml can be fatal. Side effects may include cancer, liver damage and miscarriages. Also, sweating and hot flashes. "High amounts can cause vomiting, high blood pressure, hallucinations, and more severe side effects. It can cause skin rashes when used on the skin."<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-sassa-195"> Sassafras had a long traditional use in the United States in foods, root beer, and tea. Sassafras was banned from interstate trade by the FDA in           because of its high safrole content after safrole was discovered to be carcinogenic.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-dietz-140"> Subsequently, sassafras has returned to the interstate food market after technology to remove safrole was implemented.



Serenoa repens

  • Saw palmetto  (Serenoa repens)
  • Extract of the fruit of a fan palm. Taken for BPH (benign prostatic hyperplasia) a.k.a. Getting up           times at night to piss. Some studies assert its effectiveness. Has been suggested as a treatment for male pattern baldness, mainly since finasteride, the first-line treatment for MPB, is also effective against BPH. Evidence for the latter use is inconclusive, so if you're losing your mane, finasteride and minoxidil remain your best bets.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-196">



Senna alexandrina

  • Senna  (Senna alexandrina)
  • Effective for: constipation<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-senna-197">
  • Harmful effects: Short-term use may cause stomach discomfort, cramps, and diarrhea.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-senna-197"> Long-term use (over two weeks) can stop the bowels from functioning properly and cause dependence; it may also cause heart function disorders, muscle weakness, liver damage, and other side effects.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-senna-197">


  • Siberian ginseng (Eleutherococcus senticosus) See Eleuthero


  • Skullcap: See American skullcap, Chinese skullcap. European skullcap is used there as a substitute for American skullcap, and has similar ingredients.


  • Soursop  (Annona muricata)
  • A tropical fruit touted as a "wonder cure" for cancer.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-198"> Despite some promising results, there are no definite conclusions in this area.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-199"> There are, however, definite indicators of a neurotoxic effect, with symptoms similar to Parkinsonism.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-200">



Silybum marianum

  • Milk thistle  (Silybum marianum)
  • Used for: liver, stomach, gall bladder and spleen problems,<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7"> and sometimes for irritable bowel syndrome.
  • Harmful effects: may include diarrhea, nausea, bloating, gas, and upset stomach.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-157">



Scutellaria lateriflora

  • American skullcap  (Scutellaria lateriflora)
  • Also called: blue skullcap, mad dog skullcap
  • Claimed to: Be good for tension, anxiety, insomnia, neurasthenia, panic, headaches, fatigue, depression, melancholy, convulsions, jerking muscles, epilepsy, wobbliness, heart trembles, depression, arthritis, fever, snake bites, diuresis, sedation, increasing vigor, rabies, and for PMS when used with chaste tree (Vitex agnus-castus ) or false unicorn (Chamaelirium luteum ).<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7"><wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-15">
  • Research: Not much research has been done on the herb, so these claims can't be evaluated.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-skull-16">
  • Harmful effects: High doses can cause giddiness, stupor, mental confusion, twitching, irregular heartbeat, and seizures.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-skull-16"> American skullcap has, on occasion, been contaminated with germander, which can cause liver damage.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-skull-16"> American skullcap has been implicated in some cases of liver damage.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-17">


dried flower buds of Syzygium aromaticum

  • Cloves  (Syzygium aromaticum)
  • In TCM: Dīngxiāng, 丁香.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-read-12"> It is used for nasal polyps, ulcers, cracked nipples, carious teeth, and scorpion stings.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-stuart-5">
  • In Western herbal medicine: topical anesthesia in pre-modern dentistry. Also used as an antimetic and antiseptic.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7">
  • Harmful effects: Large amounts of cloves or clove oil may cause nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea, burns in the mouth and throat, sore throat, seizures, difficulty breathing, rapid heartbeat, sleepiness, intestinal bleeding, and liver or kidney failure.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-cloves-67"> More serious side effects may occur in children, even when small amounts are used.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-cloves-67"> "Excessive application of undiluted clove oil on or near the teeth may cause irritation or damage to the gums or mouth and may damage the dental pulp, the soft core of the tooth, made up of living soft tissue and cells. … Undiluted clove oil may cause skin irritation, rashes, or even burns. Clove oil can cause blindness in laboratory animals, so keep clove preparations away from the eyes."<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-cloves-67">



Symphytum officinale

  • Comfrey  (Symphytum officinale)
  • Usage: pain relief, secretion reduction, soothing and softening tissues, bleeding reduction, cooling and wound healing; it is used internally for stomach problems and topically for wounds.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7"> Several randomized controlled trials have confirmed efficacy for treatment of pain, contusions and sprains.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-76">
  • Harmful effects: Can cause liver damage leading to cancer and death.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-comfrey-77"> Comfrey contains compounds called pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA), which have been shown by animal studies to cause liver tumours, so the plant may also cause cancer in humans. In humans, comfrey has been associated with veno-occlusive liver disease.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-78"> Even topical use may lead to a dangerous build-up in the body of some of the herb's poisonous substances, so long-term use is not advised.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-comfrey-77"> Oral comfrey products are banned in the U.K., Australia, Canada, and Germany.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-comfrey-77"> Due to the danger of PA, only commerically-produced PA-free comfrey products should be consumed.



Sida cordifolia

  • Country mallow  (Sida cordifolia)
  • Not enough research to evaluate efficacy.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-mallow-79"> Used in Ayurvedic medicine.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-80">
  • Harmful effects: Country mallow contains ephedrine, which is also found in ephedra, and may cause ephedrine-related side effects like high blood pressure, heart attacks, muscle disorders, seizures, strokes, irregular heartbeat, loss of consciousness, and death.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-81"><wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-mallow-79"> Other side effects may include dizziness, restlessness, irritability, insomnia, headache, lack of appetite, nausea, vomiting, flushing, tingling, difficulty urinating, kidney stones, and pounding heartbeat.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-mallow-79"> May make anxiety, thyroid problems, and angina worse.


Senecio vulgaris

  • Groundsel  (Senecio vulgaris)
  • Claimed to: be an "Anthelmintic; Antiscorbutic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; ... Poultice; Purgative", and claimed to be good for stomach problems and worms.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-120"><wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-groundsel-121"> There is not enough evidence to evaluate these claims.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-groundsel-121">
  • Groundsel is very toxic, and can cause liver damage, cancer, and birth defects.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-groundsel-121"> It should not be used.


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