1. Abelmoschus ficulneus
  2. Abies balsamea
  3. Acalypha australis
  4. Acalypha indica
  5. Acanthus ilicifolius
  6. Acanthus mollis
  7. Acanthus montanus
  8. Acanthus spinosus
  9. Acer campestre
  10. Acer monspessulanum
  11. Acer negundo
  12. Acer pensylvanicum
  13. Acer platanoides
  14. Acer rubrum
  15. Acer saccharinum
  16. Acer tataricum
  17. Achillea aegyptiaca
  18. Achillea ageratum
  19. Achillea alpina
  20. Achillea atrata
  21. Achillea clavennae
  22. Achillea millefolium
  23. Achillea nobilis
  24. Achillea ptarmica
  25. Achyranthes aspera
  26. Aconitum anthora
  27. Aconitum lycoctonum
  28. Aconitum napellus
  29. Acorus calamus
  30. Acrostichum aureum
  31. Actaea racemosa
  32. Actaea spicata
  33. Adansonia digitata
  34. Adenanthera pavonina
  35. Adiantum capillus-veneris
  36. Adiantum pedatum
  37. Adiantum philippense
  38. Adiantum trapeziforme
  39. Adonis annua
  40. Adonis vernalis
  41. Adoxa moschatellina
  42. Aechmea lingulata
  43. Aechmea nudicaulis
  44. Aechmea serrata
  45. Aeginetia indica
  46. Aegopodium podagraria
  47. Aeschynomene americana
  48. Aeschynomene aspera
  49. Aeschynomene indica
  50. Aesculus hippocastanum
  51. Aesculus pavia
  52. Aethusa cynapium
  53. Agapanthus africanus
  54. Agave americana
  55. Ageratina aromatica
  56. Ageratum conyzoides
  57. Agrimonia eupatoria
  58. Agrostemma githago
  59. Agrostis canina
  60. Agrostis capillaris
  61. Agrostis stolonifera
  62. Aira caryophyllea
  63. Aira praecox
  64. Ajuga genevensis
  65. Ajuga pyramidalis
  66. Ajuga reptans
  67. Albizia lebbeck
  68. Alcea rosea
  69. Alchemilla alpina
  70. Alchemilla vulgaris
  71. Aldrovanda vesiculosa
  72. Aletris farinosa
  73. Alfalfa
  74. Alisma plantago-aquatica
  75. Allium ampeloprasum
  76. Allium angulosum
  77. Allium canadense
  78. Allium carinatum
  79. Allium cepa
  80. Allium chamaemoly
  81. Allium fistulosum
  82. Allium flavum
  83. Allium lineare
  84. Allium massaessylum
  85. Allium moly
  86. Allium moschatum
  87. Allium nutans
  88. Allium obliquum
  89. Allium ochotense
  90. Allium oleraceum
  91. Allium ramosum
  92. Allium roseum
  93. Allium sativum
  94. Allium schoenoprasum
  95. Allium scorodoprasum
  96. Allium senescens
  97. Allium sphaerocephalon
  98. Allium subhirsutum
  99. Allium tenuissimum
  100. Allium triquetrum
  101. Allium ursinum
  102. Allium victorialis
  103. Allophylus cobbe
  104. Allophylus zeylanicus
  105. Almond
  106. Alnus glutinosa
  107. Alocasia macrorrhizos
  108. Aloe perfoliata
  109. Aloe variegata
  110. Alopecurus geniculatus
  111. Alopecurus pratensis
  112. Althaea cannabina
  113. Althaea officinalis
  114. Alyssum spinosum
  115. Amaranthus blitum
  116. Amaranthus cannabinus
  117. Amaranthus caudatus
  118. Amaranthus graecizans
  119. Amaranthus hybridus
  120. Amaranthus hypochondriacus
  121. Amaranthus retroflexus
  122. Amaranthus spinosus
  123. Amaranthus tricolor
  124. Amaryllis belladonna
  125. Amberboa moschata
  126. Ambrosia artemisiifolia
  127. Ambrosia trifida
  128. American ginseng
  129. Amethystea caerulea
  130. Ammi majus
  131. Amorpha fruticosa
  132. Ampelopsis arborea
  133. Amphicarpaea bracteata
  134. Anacamptis coriophora
  135. Anacamptis morio
  136. Anacamptis pyramidalis
  137. Anacardium occidentale
  138. Anacyclus valentinus
  139. Anadenanthera peregrina
  140. Anagallis arvensis
  141. Anaphalis margaritacea
  142. Anastatica hierochuntica
  143. Anchusa arvensis
  144. Anchusa officinalis
  145. Andromeda polifolia
  146. Andropogon virginicus
  147. Androsace alpina
  148. Androsace lactea
  149. Androsace septentrionalis
  150. Androsace villosa
  151. Anemone apennina
  152. Anemone coronaria
  153. Anemone hepatica
  154. Anemone hortensis
  155. Anemone narcissiflora
  156. Anemone nemorosa
  157. Anemone quinquefolia
  158. Anemone ranunculoides
  159. Anemone sylvestris
  160. Anemone trifolia
  161. Anemone virginiana
  162. Anethum graveolens
  163. Angelica archangelica
  164. Angelica atropurpurea
  165. Angelica lucida
  166. Angelica sylvestris
  167. Anise
  168. Annona glabra
  169. Annona muricata
  170. Annona reticulata
  171. Annona squamosa
  172. Anoda cristata
  173. Antennaria alpina
  174. Antennaria dioica
  175. Antennaria plantaginifolia
  176. Anthemis arvensis
  177. Anthemis cotula
  178. Anthericum liliago
  179. Anthericum ramosum
  180. Anthoxanthum odoratum
  181. Anthriscus sylvestris
  182. Anthyllis cytisoides
  183. Anthyllis montana
  184. Anthyllis vulneraria
  185. Antirrhinum majus
  186. Aphyllanthes monspeliensis
  187. Apium graveolens
  188. Apocynum androsaemifolium
  189. Apocynum cannabinum
  190. Apocynum venetum
  191. Aquilegia canadensis
  192. Aquilegia vulgaris
  193. Arabidopsis lyrata
  194. Arabidopsis thaliana
  195. Arabis alpina
  196. Arabis glabra
  197. Arachis hypogaea
  198. Aralia chinensis
  199. Aralia nudicaulis
  200. Aralia racemosa
  201. Aralia spinosa
  202. Arbutus unedo
  203. Archidendron bigeminum
  204. Arctium lappa
  205. Arctostaphylos alpina
  206. Areca catechu
  207. Arenaria ciliata
  208. Arenaria serpyllifolia
  209. Arethusa bulbosa
  210. Argemone mexicana
  211. Argentina anserina
  212. Argyranthemum frutescens
  213. Arisaema dracontium
  214. Arisaema triphyllum
  215. Aristida adscensionis
  216. Aristolochia baetica
  217. Aristolochia clematitis
  218. Aristolochia indica
  219. Aristolochia longa
  220. Aristolochia rotunda
  221. Aristolochia serpentaria
  222. Arnica montana
  223. Arnoglossum atriplicifolium
  224. Aronia arbutifolia
  225. Artedia squamata
  226. Artemisia abrotanum
  227. Artemisia absinthium
  228. Artemisia annua
  229. Artemisia arborescens
  230. Artemisia campestris
  231. Artemisia dracunculus
  232. Artemisia maritima
  233. Artemisia vulgaris
  234. Artichoke
  235. Arum maculatum
  236. Arundo donax
  237. Asafoetida
  238. Asarum canadense
  239. Asarum europaeum
  240. Asclepias curassavica
  241. Asclepias exaltata
  242. Asclepias incarnata
  243. Asclepias nivea
  244. Asclepias purpurascens
  245. Asclepias syriaca
  246. Asclepias tuberosa
  247. Asclepias verticillata
  248. Asimina triloba
  249. Asparagus
  250. Asparagus acutifolius
  251. Asparagus asparagoides
  252. Asparagus capensis
  253. Asparagus falcatus
  254. Asparagus officinalis
  255. Asperugo procumbens
  256. Asperula arvensis
  257. Asperula cynanchica
  258. Asperula tinctoria
  259. Asphodeline lutea
  260. Asphodelus fistulosus
  261. Asphodelus ramosus
  262. Asplenium adiantum-nigrum
  263. Asplenium ceterach
  264. Asplenium marinum
  265. Asplenium nidus
  266. Asplenium onopteris
  267. Asplenium platyneuron
  268. Asplenium rhizophyllum
  269. Asplenium ruta-muraria
  270. Asplenium scolopendrium
  271. Asplenium septentrionale
  272. Asplenium serratum
  273. Asplenium trichomanes
  274. Aster alpinus
  275. Aster amellus
  276. Astragalus alpinus
  277. Astragalus canadensis
  278. Astragalus cicer
  279. Astragalus glycyphyllos
  280. Astragalus monspessulanus
  281. Astragalus onobrychis
  282. Astrantia major
  283. Astrantia minor
  284. Atriplex halimus
  285. Atriplex hortensis
  286. Atriplex littoralis
  287. Atriplex patula
  288. Atropa belladonna
  289. Aurinia saxatilis
  290. Avena fatua
  291. Avena sativa
  292. Averrhoa bilimbi
  293. Averrhoa carambola
  294. Avicennia officinalis
  295. Axyris amaranthoides

 

Artemisia absinthium

  • Wormwood  (Artemisia spp.)
  • Used for: stomach problems, "liver insufficiency", blood circulation, deworming, topical anesthesia, pain relief,<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7"> and vaginal steaming (A. absinthium, absinthe); Traditional Chinese medicine (A. annua, sweet wormwood, 青蒿)
  • Claimed to:
  • Prevent intestinal worms (but is not effective).<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-ww-221">
  • Wormwood has been used to treat uncomplicated malaria; like all known chemical treatments for malaria, it can cause resistance.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-222"> In , Tu Youyou was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for her discovery and development of artemisinin, a chemical derived from A. annua, in the treatment of malaria.
  • Harmful effects:
  • Harmful effects: Side effects of large doses may include nausea, vomiting, stomach pain, headache, dizziness, seizures, numbness of the legs and arms, delirium, paralysis, and kidney and liver failure.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-ww-221">
  • Wormwood contains thujone (e.g. as it occurs in small amounts in absinthe<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-223">), which is neurotoxic above the threshold so caution should be exercised for therapeutic usage.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-224">

 

Aconitum anthora

  • Aconite  (Aconitum spp. )
  • Also called: aconitum, monkshood, wolfsbane, leopard's bane, mousebane, women's bane, devil's helmet, Queen of all Poisons, blue rocket
  • Usage
  • In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM): many species are used as a general panacea, including as a diaphoretic, diuretic, arthritic, sedative, alterative, and deobstruent,<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-stuart-5"> and for rheumatism, bruises, arthritis, acute hypothermia, diarrhea, impotence, and yang imbalance.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-6">
  • In Western herbal medicine: (A. napellus) for pain relief, fever reduction, sedation.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7">

There isn't enough evidence to know if it's good for anything.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-8">

  • Harmful effects:
  • Aconite is very poisonous, and ingestion may lead to nausea, vomiting, weakness, sweating, breathing problems, heart problems, and death.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-aconite-9">(Indeed, aconite was,<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-10"> and sometimes is,<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-11"> used as a poison.)
  • Topical use can also cause severe side effects.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-aconite-9">

 

 

Aloe vera

  • Aloe  (Aloe vera)
  • Also called: Aloë, true aloe, in TCM: lúhuì (蘆薈)<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-read-12">
  • Usage'
  • In TCM: although not native to China, it is used as an anthelmintic, stomachic, and laxative, and for ecsema.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-stuart-5">
  • In Western herbal medicine: softening and smoothing skin (topical), purgative (oral), and wound healing (topical)<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7">
  • Beneficial effects: It is effective for topical application to treat minor burns and some skin problems, but may possibly be too dangerous to use internally as a laxative for constipation.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-aloe-13"> Aloe was formerly promoted by some CAM practitioners as a cancer treatment, but it is ineffective, and some patients died after receiving aloe injections.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-aloe-13">
  • Harmful effects: A cancer study of aloe vera extract in rats and mice found that it "caused cancers of the large intestine in male and female rats and also caused hyperplasia of the large intestine, small intestine, stomach, and lymph nodes in male and female rats. Aloe vera extract also caused hyperplasia of the large intestine in male and female mice and hyperplasia of the mesenteric lymph node in male mice and hyperplasia of the stomach in female mice."<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-14">

 

Arnica montana

  • Arnica  (Arnica montana, also known as "Leopard's Bane" or "Dog's Bane")
  • Claimed to: Help skin problems (not effective),<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-arnica-18">, induce perspiration, diuresis, expectoration, wound healing, and be a stimulant<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7">
  • Harmful effects:
  • Topical arnica is generally safe, but "repeated use can cause skin reactions, severe inflammation, itching, blisters, skin ulcers, and other allergy-related skin problems," especially when used on broken skin.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-arnica-18">
  • Arnica is extremely toxic when ingested and shouldn't be taken internally.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-arnica-18">

 

Areca catechu

  • Betelnut  (Areca catechu )
  • Also called: areca nut, paan; in TCM: bīnláng (檳榔)<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-read-12">
  • Preparation: Areca nuts are usually wrapped with Piper betel  leaves and/or slaked lime  (calcium hydroxide) and/or tobacco. The concoction is ingested.
  • Usage: traditional Chinese medicine for deworming, antiparasitic, malaria prophylaxis, and "foul-smelling" diseases.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-stuart-5"> Used in Southeast Asia to colourblacken teeth. It's also apparently "widely used in Ayurveda".<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-28">
  • Harmful effects:
  • Prolonged use can lead to mouth, liver, cervical, stomach, prostate, lung, and sweat gland cancer.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-betel-29"><wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-30"><wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-31"><wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-32">
  • Other side effects of betel nut/leaf include skin color changes, dilated pupils, blurred vision, wheezing/difficulty breathing, increased breathing rate, salivation, increased tearing, incontinence, sweating, diarrhea, fever, confusion, problems with eye movement, psychosis, amnesia, stimulant effects, and a feeling of euphoria.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-betel-29"> It can also cause dependence, and withdrawal can cause anxiety or memory lapse.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-betel-29"> Betel nut chewing can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, stomach cramps, chest pain, irregular heartbeats, high or low blood pressure, and irregular heart beats.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-betel-29">
  • Usage may be associated with other diseases (HIV/AIDS, dengue fever, tuberculosis, and typhoid) due to immunosuppression, injury to the oral mucosa, and associated fecal-oral contamination of the betel quid ingredients.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-33">

 

 

A. californica

  • Birthwort (Aristolochia spp.)

See the main article on this topic: Aristolochia

  • Also called: pipevine, Dutchman's pipe
  • Usage: Ninety-nine species have been documented to be used ethnobotanically worldwide,<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-34"> so usage would tend to be that of a panacea overall. Some of the main usages are:
  • Traditional Chinese Medicine for various things, including eczema<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-35">
  • Ayurveda (A. indica)<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-36">
  • Western herbal medicine, particularly A. clematitis for promoting sweating, menstruation, reducing fever, inducing childbirth, and stimulation.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7">
  • Harmful effects:
  • It contains aristolochic acid,  (AA) which is a known human carcinogen, and causes kidney failure and upper urinary tract cancer.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-pnas-37">
  • Birthwort is considered to be a significant cause of kidney failure and upper urinary tract cancer in Taiwan,<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-pnas-37"> because of the popularity of herbal medicine there (approximately % of Taiwan's herbal medicine prescriptions contain aristolochic acid,<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-pnas-37"> and AA has been ingested by approximately % of Taiwan's population.)<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-38">The Taiwanese Department of Health banned its use in cosmetics and commercial skincare preparations in .<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-39">
  • In Belgium, a weight loss spa using TCM herbs gave its clients herbal supplements containing birthwort, and as a result, more than           out of           of its patients developed kidney failure, and several also developed urothelial and bladder cancers. Because Traditional Chinese Medicine allows for the substitution of identically or similarly named plants, plants that are botanically unrelated may be substituted. In this case, the relatively safe Stephania tetrandra (漢防己, Han Fang Ji) was intended for the clients, but the lethal Aristolochia fangchi (廣防己, Guang Fang Ji) was given to the clients.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-40">
  • European birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis) is also used as a medicinal plant and contains aristolochic acid. It has been linked to thousands of cases of kidney failure (Balkan endemic nephropathy ) in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Croatia, Romania and Serbia.
  • The true number of cases of aristolochic acid nephropathy (usually fatal) is unknown and is probably underestimated.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-41">

 

Actaea racemosa

  • Black cohosh  (Actaea racemosa)
  • Also called: black bugbane, black snakeroot, fairy candle
  • Claimed to: reduce spasms, contract tissues, increase urination, increase menstruation, increase mucous, and be a sedative<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7">
  • Harmful effects: may include stomach upset, cramping, headache, rash, a feeling of heaviness, vaginal spotting or bleeding, and weight gain.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-46">

 

Angelica sinensis

 

  • Dong quai  (Angelica sinensis); 當歸
  • Usage: traditional Chinese medicine.
  • Harmful effects: It may be dangerous to take dong quai in large amounts for a long time because it contains carcinogens.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-dq-85"> Dong quai can cause skin to be more sensitive to sunlight, thus possibly increasing the risk of skin cancer.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-dq-85"> It may or may not act like estrogen in the body.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-dq-85"> It can slow blood clotting and increase the risk of bleeding, and so should not be taken less than           weeks before surgery.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-dqmc-86"> Dong quai may increase the risk of miscarriage.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-dqmc-86">

 

Allium sativum

  • Garlic  (Allium sativum)
  • In traditional Chinese medicine: It is known as suàn (蒜).<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-read-12"> "The medicinal virtues of garlic are considered to be many. It is thought to have a special influence upon the spleen, stomach, and kidneys, acting as a sedative and removing poisons. It is supposed to correct the unwholesomeness of water, to destroy the noxious effect of putrid meat and fish, and to prevent goitre and pestilential diseases."<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-stuart-5">
  • In Western herbal medicine: Used for constipation, poor digestion, intestinal worms, dysentery, cholera, typhoid and paratyphoid.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7"> Lowers blood cholesterol and blood pressure,<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7"> Lowers blood sugar. Reduces risk of certain cancers. Fights minor viral infections such as cold and sore throat.<wiki/Help:References" title="Help:References">
  • Truth:
  • Known antimicrobial effect in vitro, tests suggest some effect on throat infections in greater-than-typical amounts.
  • Cancer claims based on large-scale statistics of incidence and diet, probably bullshit.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-100">
  • A meta-analysis showed consistent evidence that garlic powder intake reduces the cardiovascular disease risk factors of total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and blood pressure.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-101">
  • Garlic consumption increases cellular hydrogen sulfide (HS) production.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-102"> Increased production of cellular HS is likely behind the life-extension effects of caloric restriction in animals.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-103"><wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-104">
  • Seductive effect on body odor well-documented and conclusive. Freshens breath for up to twelve hours.
  • Side effects:
  • Bad breath, a burning sensation in the mouth or stomach, heartburn, gas, nausea, vomiting, body odor, diarrhea, and an increased risk of bleeding.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-Garlic-105">
  • "Asthma has been reported in people working with garlic, and other allergic reactions are possible."<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-Garlic-105">

 

 

Aesculus hippocastanumfruit and nut

  • Horse chestnut  (Aesculus hippocastanum)
  • Used for: varicose veins, skin ulcers, hemorrhoids, neuralgia and sunburn.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7">
  • Standardized horse chestnut seed extract is good for varicose veins, chronic venous insufficiency, and symptoms of poor blood circulation.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-horse-130">
  • Standardized, esculin-free horse chestnut seed extract is mostly safe, with side effects including dizziness, headache, stomach upset, and itching.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-horse-130"> It may lower blood sugar.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-horse-130"><wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-131"> Raw horse chestnut seed, leaf, bark, and flower, on the other hand, are toxic and can be lethal.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-horse-130">

 

 

Artemisia vulgaris

  • Mugwort  (Artemisia vulgaris)
  • In TCMai (艾) refers to A. vulgaris.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-read-12"> Other species of Artemisia are also used.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-stuart-5"> A. vulgaris is used in moxibustion, and is regarded as a panacea.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-stuart-5">
  • Used for: improving appetite and digestion, laxative, menstrual regulation, gout, rheumatism, tired legs,<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-theherbbook-7"> vaginal steaming, homeopathy, and moxibustion.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-ACS-161">
  • Claimed to: to treat everything under the sun.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-ACS-161">
  • Side effects: the allergenic qualities of American ragweed. Mugwort and can cause hay fever, rashes, and other irritations. It also appears to be related to some food allergies.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-ACS-161">
  • Benefits: No evidence that it does anything useful.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-ACS-161">

 

  • Mu Tong (Aristolochia manshuriensis or Akebia spp.)

"Mu tong" (木通) is a conflation of two unrelated genera, one highly dangerous (Aristolochia spp.) and one not so dangerous (Akebia spp.). For the dangerous one, see Birthwort.

  • Used in: traditional Chinese medicine for "relieving excess fire" and "stimulating the secretion of milk".<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-162">
  • Harmful effects: May cause fatal kidney failure because all Aristolochia species contain aristolochic acid.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-163">

 

Azadirachta indica

  • Neem  (Azadirachta indica)
  • Not known to be effective for anything.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-neem-164"> Also used non-medicinally as a pesticide.
  • Safe when taken short-term by adults.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-neem-164"> Neem is contraindicated for children, because it can cause vomiting, diarrhea, drowsiness, blood disorders, seizures, loss of consciousness, coma, brain disorders, and death.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-neem-164"> High-dose or long-term internal use by adults is dangerous, and can harm the kidneys and liver, lower blood sugar, and cause infertility and miscarriages.<wiki/List_of_medicinal_plants#cite_note-neem-164">